User experience of ( CPF ) prototype

  • This is an user experience of a mobile application ‘CPF’.Its  a part of my masters thesis research work and I am working for the tourism growth of my home country Bangladesh.  If you wanna know what is CPF and how it works ,you will find all the details bellow :

    Here we have 3 tasks for the user to perform in the app prototype. You will find the app prototype in the following link :


>>  The tasks are as follow :

  1. Task 1:  signup manually ,find in the map which  cities are safe  to travel.
  2. Task 2: sign in with facebook and go to the user profile page and post the first story and share it with facebook.
  3. Task 3:sign in manually  ,read the top stories and read the first report in details .

** I request all of you to provide feedback and your experience after finishing all 3 tasks or any suggestions regarding the app  .You can comment under the app or in this blog or in facebook page or just email me on :

  • What is CPF ?


‘CPF ‘ is a mobile application for Crowdsourcing Political forecasting .It  collects information about the updated political situation of  a locality from the local people and provides a political forecasting of an area in the map .This forecasting can help international and local tourist to get an idea of a particular area before travelling.

  • How CPF collects information?


Any person can provide us a report by using the app or through SMS, facebook ,twitter,or google plus or any other social networking .

  • How trustworthy is CPF?

People rate each others report and we post the top news according to ratings and user trust scale. Every user has a rank depending on their previous reports and ratings .So people are basically the monitor of the app.

  • Why do we need CPF ?

Nowadays we don’t get the right news about the political situation of a country ,lots of reports are underreported or completely unreported .So basically we get the reports that somebody want us to see ,its not the real report that we expect to have .This is why the idea came to my mind to create a platform  like ‘CPF’ where anyone can access with whatever technology they are using and get the information to share  .This process is called as crowdsourcing  and the information we will gather is called crowdsourcing information.


Homework Assignment 3

 Testing with screen reader

To do the experiment I had chosen JAWS screen reader.JAWS are made for blind and short vision people who are unable to read the screen so the screen writings to speech is converted by the screen reader .I personally found it so difficult from the very beginning and it was hard to understand when sentence ends and when another starts .If there are some descriptions side by side then the reader lost its correct navigation,so it is very important to have a good HTML coding for screen reader again while there is  a picture  table or form it was hard to identify the navigation .May be as a first time user I found it very difficult but at the same time when I tried to follow the screen reading keeping my eyes open after the real experiment I found it huge complicated .

Sample page with images:

When there is a picture to read the screen reader get confused while it is a logo ,decoration or design or what type of picture it is .

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 15.29.01

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 15.29.33

 Sample page with tables:

When there is a table the reader get confused and lost the correct navigation due to  bad HTML coding again .

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 15.32.51

Sample page with forms:

Here sometimes the user don’t understand what the required information is asked for and in this example the submit button seems like a red picture which makes a confusion for the user again.

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 15.37.46

To sum up I can say that screen reader is very important for the blind and shot eye vision users and to make it more accurate the correct HTML coding is most important.

Homework Assignment 2

I  am using windows 7 home premium so the keyboard shortcut applies on my laptop are as follow :

Windows system key combinations

  • F1: Help
  • CTRL+ESC: Open Start menu
  • ALT+TAB: Switch between open programs
  • ALT+F4: Quit program
  • SHIFT+DELETE: Delete item permanently
  • Windows Logo+L: Lock the computer (without using CTRL+ALT+DELETE)

Windows program key combinations

  • CTRL+C: Copy
  • CTRL+X: Cut
  • CTRL+V: Paste
  • CTRL+Z: Undo
  • CTRL+B: Bold
  • CTRL+U: Underline
  • CTRL+I: Italic

Mouse click/keyboard modifier combinations for shell objects

  • SHIFT+right click: Displays a shortcut menu containing alternative commands
  • SHIFT+double click: Runs the alternate default command (the second item on the menu)
  • ALT+double click: Displays properties
  • SHIFT+DELETE: Deletes an item immediately without placing it in the Recycle Bin

General keyboard-only commands

  • F1: Starts Windows Help
  • F10: Activates menu bar options
  • SHIFT+F10 Opens a shortcut menu for the selected item (this is the same as right-clicking an object
  • CTRL+ESC: Opens the Start menu (use the ARROW keys to select an item)
  • CTRL+ESC or ESC: Selects the Start button (press TAB to select the taskbar, or press SHIFT+F10 for a context menu)
  • CTRL+SHIFT+ESC: Opens Windows Task Manager
  • ALT+DOWN ARROW: Opens a drop-down list box
  • ALT+TAB: Switch to another running program (hold down the ALT key and then press the TAB key to view the task-switching window)
  • SHIFT: Press and hold down the SHIFT key while you insert a CD-ROM to bypass the automatic-run feature
  • ALT+SPACE: Displays the main window’s System menu (from the System menu, you can restore, move, resize, minimize, maximize, or close the window)
  • ALT+- (ALT+hyphen): Displays the Multiple Document Interface (MDI) child window’s System menu (from the MDI child window’s System menu, you can restore, move, resize, minimize, maximize, or close the child window)
  • CTRL+TAB: Switch to the next child window of a Multiple Document Interface (MDI) program
  • ALT+underlined letter in menu: Opens the menu
  • ALT+F4: Closes the current window
  • CTRL+F4: Closes the current Multiple Document Interface (MDI) window
  • ALT+F6: Switch between multiple windows in the same program (for example, when the Notepad Find dialog box is displayed, ALT+F6 switches between the Find dialog box and the main Notepad window)

Shell objects and general folder/Windows Explorer shortcuts

For a selected object:

  • F2: Rename object
  • F3: Find all files
  • CTRL+X: Cut
  • CTRL+C: Copy
  • CTRL+V: Paste
  • SHIFT+DELETE: Delete selection immediately, without moving the item to the Recycle Bin
  • ALT+ENTER: Open the properties for the selected object

To copy a file

Press and hold down the CTRL key while you drag the file to another folder.

To create a shortcut

Press and hold down CTRL+SHIFT while you drag a file to the desktop or a folder.

General folder/shortcut control

  • F4: Selects the Go To A Different Folder box and moves down the entries in the box (if the toolbar is active in Windows Explorer)
  • F5: Refreshes the current window.
  • F6: Moves among panes in Windows Explorer
  • CTRL+G: Opens the Go To Folder tool (in Windows 95 Windows Explorer only)
  • CTRL+Z: Undo the last command
  • CTRL+A: Select all the items in the current window
  • BACKSPACE: Switch to the parent folder
  • SHIFT+click+Close button: For folders, close the current folder plus all parent folders

Accessibility shortcuts

  • Press SHIFT five times: Toggles StickyKeys on and off
  • Press down and hold the right SHIFT key for eight seconds: Toggles FilterKeys on and off
  • Press down and hold the NUM LOCK key for five seconds: Toggles ToggleKeys on and off
  • Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK: Toggles MouseKeys on and off
  • Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN: Toggles high contrast on and off

Microsoft Natural Keyboard keys

  • Windows Logo: Start menu
  • Windows Logo+R: Run dialog box
  • Windows Logo+M: Minimize all
  • SHIFT+Windows Logo+M: Undo minimize all
  • Windows Logo+F1: Help
  • Windows Logo+E: Windows Explorer
  • Windows Logo+F: Find files or folders
  • Windows Logo+D: Minimizes all open windows and displays the desktop
  • CTRL+Windows Logo+F: Find computer

The Wave tool icons are as follow :


To the wave toolbar I tested the homepage of transfer wise .com and I found 18 errors and 10 alerts 

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 14.02.18

10273356_10204197095275941_5025112572107547667_o 10333443_10204197095195939_4918130674445796470_o 10428145_10204197095155938_7972741691492961499_o


And when I tested the page of Sending money ,I mean then I found only 3 errors and 6 alerts

Screen Shot 2014-06-01 at 14.07.00


To conclude I found the site with less accessibility errors and they are easy to correct .Compared to previous assignment here is less errors and some of them are very basic errors .


Homework Assignment 1


Homework Assignment 1

The website I had  chosen for testing is  which is  the clever new alternative to banks and brokers, that allows people to transfer money abroad at a lower cost than ever before. It uses technology developed by the people who built Skype and PayPal to remove all the fees the foreign exchange industry has kept hidden for decades.


This website is in 5 different languages but I decided to work with the English version  and it has a  mobile version too  and I am going to use Google Chrome  browser  for the testing .The main purposes of the website is  to send money and receive money and there are 6 different pages for the site (Send Money, Receive Money, Help & Support, About Us, Log In ,  Sign Up ).


the tool I used for the evaluation is AChecker- Accesibility Checker and the link entered  for checking is  the  results show us that according to WCAG 2.0 (level AA) guidelines there are 8 known problems ,0 likely problems and 215 potential problems.

The known problems are in 4 categories and they are as follow:

1.1   Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content

1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example

simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including

separating foreground from background.

2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine

where they are.

The potential problems fall into  following big categories:

1.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content

1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example

simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including

separating foreground from background.

2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine

where they are.

3.1 Readable: Make text content readable and understandable.

3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

the full report can be seen as PDF file bellow :


I found this site really neat and less problematic ,it has some errors according to AChecker  there are so,me problems but they can be solved easily and it is a really good site so far .



Philosophy of HCI

Distributed Cognition

Distributed cognition means more than those cognitive processes are socially distributed across the members of a group. The three fundamental questions highlighted about social interactions are -1) how people are associated with an individual mind in a group of individuals.2) how cognitive properties of group differ from the cognitive properties of people acting in those groups .3) how the cognitive properties of individual minds are affected by participation in group activities.

Embodied cognition is not an incidental matter that we process bodies looking us casually into relations with our immediate environment. Casual coupling is an essential fact of cognition that evolution has designed us to exploit. For design of work environments, it means that work materials are more than mere stimuli for a disembodied cognitive system.

The study of cognition is not separable from the study of culture because agents live in complex cultural environments .Distributed cognition returns culture, context and history of picture of cognition. The new concept of culturally embedded cognition requires that we rebuild our model of the individual mind.

A person changes the outside world and the changed world alters the person simultaneously and the dynamic goes on. The environment holds nothing that couldn’t be inferred through reflection .With a good imagination and some knowledge of geometry ,people make sense of it without physical interaction with anything external.

Moreover people interact with representations to change the cognitive terrain rather than the interactions people perform to prepare themselves to engage the external part of that terrain through anchoring.

It is easier to process more efficiently and more effectively than by working inside the head alone through interaction. When we   externalize a form or structure, we communicate with ourselves. As well as making it possible for others to share with us as a common focus.

The power of physical rearrangement helps people visually compare statements written later with those  written earlier. Searching for a solution in the world is not always better. We can push the complexity envelope arbitrarily far and it cannot be done in the head alone.

Thinking with both rearrangement and having stable objects depend on physical things. Scale models are tangible representations of an intended design. They serve several functions- as a shared object of thought, enforcing consistency, revealing unanticipated consequences, without the stability and persistence some of the ideas people form about the temporal dynamics of a structure would be virtually unthinkable.

A fourth source of power of interaction depends on our ability of externally renarrate ideas. The activity of reformulating external representations is one of the more useful things we perform outside our heads. They encode content more transparently and more explicitly. Without actually testing things in the physical world, it’s too hard and error phone to predict downstream effects. Interactions and side effects are always possible. The rules governing reformulation are based on rewrite rules.

Persistence, reordering and reformulation can explain the cause of increasing the efficiency, precision, complexity and the depth of cognition by externalizing information and representation. If a represtational system is to function as a medium of through, the elements in the system must be manipulable to   be worked with quickly .If external manipulability matches internal requirements on speed, and then an external medium has the plasticity to be a candidate for thinking in.

Notations revel more than the music one listen to. A non –natural representation can be more revealing and intuitive than the original representation. Without interacting with multiple representations certain discoveries would be out of reach.

The final virtue of external interaction is the summation of persistence, rearrangement and reformulation. The writer calls it as power of construction. The conclusion the writer draws is that to formulate certain thoughts and to transitions to others, people must be able to represent arbitrarily complex states or they must rely on the external states themselves to encode their values and use them to transition to later states. In order to extract meaning, people often mark, annotate and build up representations.

As our environment is enriched with new possibilities of communication and interaction, the field of human computer interaction meets difficult challenges of complex tasks, mediating, networked interactions and exploiting the ever increasing availability of digital information. In order to understand human cognitive accomplishments and to design effective human computer interactions, we realize the nature of these distributions of process.

In order to investigate the functional properties of distributed cognitive systems properly, we need a new kind of cognitive ethnography. The theoretical emphasis on distributed cognitive process is reflected in the methodological focus on events. Cognitive ethnography is not only single data collection or analysis technique. The theory holds that cognitive activity is constructed from both internal and external resources. The approach to human computer interaction they propose here requires researchers to make a real commitment to ado main .What researchers are proposing is more fundamental: a research frame work that integrates distributed cognition theory with methods for design of digital work materials.

The file d of HCI could certainly benefit from an integrated research framework. The theory further focuses on to design and back to new ethnographic observations. It is an important cycle of activity in our framework.

The very concept of distributed cognition and the need for cognitive ethnography arose from the observation. The outcomes that mattered to the ship were not determined by the cognitive properties of any single nevigatior.But they were the product of the interactions of several navigators with each other and with a complex suite of tools. It is not possible to know from observation alone the roles played in the navigation task. Ethnography of the use of new tools would be the beginning of the next phase of the cycle of research activity.

In the late 1980’s Hutchins moved his primary field location from the bridges of ships to the cockpits of commercial arlines.Since then he and his students continued to refine distributed cognition theory  by  applying it to cockpit.

In our integrated approach ,we are now  in a position to complement the ethnographic,theoreticand design activities with experimental investigations of pilot eye movements  while using the alternative designs.

It is possible to create virtual social and material environments that have different properties than real environments. A key focus of research based on distributed cognition is the natural representations and the ways that people use representations to do work. Hutchins and Palen were two forerunners who contributed much in this episodes.The  research framework work the researchers proposed here and their previous theoretical ,ethnographic and design efforts lead one to address different questions. The questions may be- 1) how  we can make representations more active ,2)how we can shift the frams of interpretation on so as to achieve a better conceptualization.

History Enriched Digital objectst

An interaction with objects is the world, history of use is sometimes available to us. We have developed other applications of history enriched digital objects. Records of the amount of time spent reading wire services, net news, manual pages, and email history of others interactions. The integrated of ethnographic analysis of current use histories digital artefacts that capture their use histories.( Pad++Zoomable Multiscae interfaces)


At this an experimental software system  to support exploration of dynamic multi scale interfaces. The integrated framework encourages us to augment experimental evaluation of Pad++ with ethnographic analyses.


Intelligent use of space.

In observing behaviour in Pad++ it is apparent that how they manipulate icons, objects, and emergent structure is not incidental to their cognition. The cowork discuss here above points to one fact: People from a tightly coupled system with their environments. An integrated environment research  is crucial to analyses and foundation of created digital environments what makes these cognitive alliances as powerful as possible.

Conclusions and future directions

human computer interaction as field began at time which human ufo processing psychology was the dominant theory.Here researches propose distributeted cognition as a theoretical foundation for human computer interaction research.It is unlikely the field of human computer interaction will do justice to designing the intellectual workplaces of the future.


Distributed cognition.(Edwin Hutchins)

Like all other branches of cognitive science, distributed cognition seeks to understand the organisation of cognitive systems. it takes cognitive processes to be those that are involved in memory, decision making, interface, reasoning learning and so on. The roots of distributed cognition are deep, but the field come into being under its current name in the mid-1980.


Mind in Society.

Breafing memory as a socially distributed cognitive has a long in sociology and anthropology. Durkheim and his students mentioned that memory could be coherent discussed as property of an isolated individual. Antropologists and sociologists styling knowledge and memory social psychologists studying small-groupp problem solving and jury decision making and often respective experts exploring the relations of individuals and group rationality. it is important to remember the fact in mind when thinking about human cognitive capabilities.


The Society of mind

the language of mind to describe what is happening in a special groups, the language social groups can be used to describe what is happening in a mind.Theories and research on the topic are mainly  focused by min sky,Ygotsky and other social scientists and philosophers.

Interaction as a source of novel structure.


An important property of aggregate systems is that they may give rise to forms of organisations that can not develop in the component parts. by simultaneously considering the society mind and mind in society, the distributed cognition approach provides a new place to look for the origins of complexity.

The material environment

the potential of the material environment support memory is very widely recognised. Cognitive activity is sometimes sitauted in the material world in such way that environment is a computational system.


Distributing Cognition in Time

Simon offered a parallel as a way of emphasising the importance of the environment for cognition. humans create in their cognitive powers in part by creating the environments in which they exercise those powers.


It does not seem possible to account for the cognitive accomplishments of our species by reference to what is inside our heads alone. One must also cosier the cognitive roles of the social and material world.

Distributed cognition attempts to solve how we understand the relationships of social world. it is the material to cognitive processes that take place inside individual human actors.

Cognitive Ecology:

Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined in terms of dynamic patters of correlation across elements the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

Everything is connected to everything else .Not all connectivity is equally dense .A theory of cognition that includes culture,context,history and affect will effectively exclude the study of cognitive ecology .Cognitive  science is returning to the issues.

By the late 1970s

As cognitive science develop, a few research traditions committed to a cognitive  eco system as the correct unit of analysis.


Ecological psychology

Gibson stressed that psychological process could only be understand in terms of the dynamic compiling between the area and its environment. He tasted his colleagues, saying of information processing approach to psychology, “it will not do, and the approach should be abandoned.”

Ecology of mind

The essay list mentions here Gregory Bateson. Bateson was a key player in one of the most ambitions projects in the history of the social science. In culturally constructed social interacthomy  ever refraining from all actor is a meaningful behavior .

Cultural historiacal activity theory:

This approach holds that human thoughts develos in cultural context,historically contigent cultural practices.Ecological psychology,ecology of mind and CHAT can be seen as ancestors of a modern synthesis of cognitive ecology approaches.

Organiz environment dynamics become agent-environment interactions embodied robotics.The cognitive properties of groups can be quite different from the cognitive properties of any individual in the group.While everything is connected to everything else ,the patterens in the density of interconnectivity determine cognitive properties of the system whether the system is an area of a brain or a group of governmental agencies responding to the crisis.

The boundaries of units of analysis have been expanding in many areas of cognitive science for sometime,as researchers transition to units defined in terms of the inherent properties of the dements . As the field of cognitive ecology grows and matures ,we will achieve a better understanding of why cognitive processes are as they are .This will be true both in a synchronic sense in terms of the fuctional relationships among the elements of the contemporary cognitive ecology and also in a diachronic sense where understanding the evolution of cognition will be recast as understanding the evolution of cognitive ecologies.